Northern Ontario Plant Database
General Fruit and Seed Terminology
- fruit - a mature ovary.
- pericarp - the fruit (ovary) wall, composed of 3 layers.
- exocarp - the outermost layer of the pericarp.
- mesocarp - the middle layer of the pericarp.
- endocarp - the inner layer of the pericarp.
- funiculus - the seed stalk - the stalk that attaches an ovule to the placenta in the ovary or fruit.
- seed - a mature ovule. See D10 for terminology relating to seeds.
- infructescence - a cluster of fruits, the persistent fruits of an inflorescence.
- arillate seed - a seed with a fleshy outgrowth from the funiculus or integuments, the latter forming a fleshy seed coat.
- endosperm - triploid food reserve in a seed derived from fusion of the polar nuclei with a sperm nucleus.
- perisperm - diploid food reserve in a seed derived from the nucellus or integuments.
- funiculus - the seed stalk - the stalk that attaches a seed to the fruit.
- hilum - the scar on a seed left by the funiculus.
- seed coat - the mature integuments of an ovule.
- comose - a seed with a coma (tuft of hairs) at the apex, e.g., milkweed (Asclepias, Apocynaceae).
- triquetrous - three-angled, characteristic seed shape of many knotweeds (Polygonaceae).