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Vascular Plant Families - Trees & Shrubs - Gymnosperms - Wildflowers - Graminoids
Pteridophytes - Bryophytes - Lichens
Cultivated Plants - Rare Plants - Weeds & Invasive Species - Poisonous Plants - Ethnobotany - First Nations
North America - Canada - U.S.A. - Other Countries
Taxonomic Databases - Miscellany - Glossaries & Dictionaries

Choose one of the links above for a list of plant-related websites about that category. Selected websites include only non-commercial, free-access sites that do not require passwords. The links provided have all been checked as of April 18, 2008, but visitors should note that most large websites have a regular downtime for editing and uploading more information. Often, this downtime occurs on the weekends, especially Sunday night (students take note!). If you find a link that doesn't work, try that site again at a different time or on a different day; if it still does not work, please report the problematic link to the NOPD.

Canada (in general)

Aquatic Non-Native and Invasive Species
A webpage from Environment Canada that discusses alien species in our Great Lakes.

Canada's Plant Hardiness Site
A map of Canada's Plant Hardiness Zones, developed at Great Lakes Forestry Centre (McKenney et al. 2001), is accessible on this site. Information on cultivated and native North American species is also presented and gardeners with a good knowledge of their plants are encouraged to enter data on which species survive in their area.

Canadian Museum of Nature
The homepage of Canada's Museum of Nature in Ottawa, which offers a wealth of choices to explore various aspects of our natural environment. Two features of interest to visitors of our NOPD website are the Native Plant Crossroads and the Canadian Centre for Biodiversity webpages.

Canadian Poisonous Plants Information System
A fairly comprehensive website on poisonous plants of Canada, compiled by Derek B. Munro. Some plants known to be poisonous, such as Actaea rubra (baneberry), are missing, possibly since reports of poisoning do not occur in the recent literature. However, other sites listed below do include information on Actaea rubra. Contains links to more databases on poisonous or toxic plants.

Invasive Alien Species
A website from the Canada Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) that provided information on regulations regarding alien species, as well as webpages on plant pests and other invasive species in Canada.

Invasive Plants of Canada
The Canadian Botanical Conservation Network (CBCN) has compiled this website on invasive species in Canada. Educational information and newsletters are among the links included in this website. Lists of invasive herbs, trees, and shrubs, with brief descriptions, can be accessed from the Invasive Plant Lists link.

Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
A co-operative website with family treatments written by different botanists. The combined treatment includes species from all families, and there are separate treatments on Pteridophytes, the Caryophyllaceae, Cyperaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, and Salicaceae. Each species description includes synonymy, ecological information, nomenclatural notes, Arctic distribution maps, and links to images. Invaluable for understanding the morphological variations of species with arctic and more southern populations.

Prohibited Noxious Weed Seeds
A list of species banned by Canada's Dept. of Agriculture (Canadian Food Inspection Agency) from import into the country. Some species on the list have links to excellent images.

Species at Risk Public Registry
A website from Environment Canada that discusses questions and problems associated with Canada's endangered species. Information on individual species (plant and animal) as well as legislation governing species at risk can be accessed through this website. See also the French version .

The Canadian Biodiversity Web Site
A website from the Redpath Museum, McGill Univ., whose purpose is to provide a central registry of information about biological diversity. Distribution maps from the Flora of North America are included in the plant species pages, which can be accessed from this link to the Plants page.

Trees in Canada
This website from Natural Resources Canada features a collection of excellent images by Daniel Tigner of Canada's tree species.


Invasive Plant Info-Sheets - Alberta Invasive Plants Council
A collection of excellent webpages (in pdf format) that provides information on identification, prevention, and control of many of Canada's invasive species.

Vascular Plants of North America
A 3-page gallery of very nice wildflower images from Alberta, by Michael Simpson. Some, like Disporum trachycarpum (now Prosartes trachycarpa), Anemone patens, and Chrysosplenium tetrandrum are rarely seen in Ontario.

Wildflowers and Scenery of the Canadian Rockies
This website, by Barbara J. Collins, includes several regional websites with images of Alberta plants: Wildflowers from the Foothills, the Prairies, and the Waterton-Glacier Area.

British Columbia

Botany Photo of the Day
Subscribing to this free website from the UBC Botanical Garden and Centre for Plant Research will bring a new botanical image to your computer screen each day. A great way to start each day! This site also provides access to numerous excellent images of previous Botany Photos of the Day.

Bryophytes of Stanley Park
A website on the bryophytes of Stanley Park, Vancouver Island, B.C., produced by the combined efforts of the Botany 505 Field Course at the University of British Columbia.

E-Flora BC - An Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia
This website from the University of British Columbia contains an image bank, which can be accessed through this direct link to the E-Flora Image Gallery.

Invasive Plant Alert
This website from the Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Govt. of British Columbia, includes links to webpages of many invasive species in Canada.

The Orchids of British Columbia
A checklist of B.C. orchids, followed by some very good images and links to other orchid sites. Part of the E-Flora BC website.

University of British Columbia Herbarium
This website, by Wilf Schofield, provides links to the algal, bryophyte, vascular plant, fungal, and lichen herbarium specimens house in the UBC herbarium. Click on the buttons at the top of the homepage to see each collection.


Bryophyte Flora of Manitoba
A checklist of the mosses, liverworts, and hornworts found in Manitoba, with links to other bryophyte sites.

Invasive Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Manitoba
A website on Invasive species in Manitoba, but also relevant to Ontario. Link to the list of webpages on Manitoba's invasive plant species.

Lichen Flora of Manitoba
A checklist of lichens in Manitoba. Each genus listing is followed by an abbreviation to denote crustose (C), foliose (Fo), and fruticose (Fr) lichens.

Vascular Flora of Manitoba
A checklist of the 1751 vascular plant species found in Manitoba, with links to ecosystem information.

New Brunswick

Native Flora of New Brunswick
The link above brings you to the alphabetical family list of scanned herbarium sheets from Robert Thompson's Native Flora of NB, Mount Allison Univ., Sackville, NB. Some species also have digital images of live plants.

New Brunswick Tree and Shrub Species of Concern
This virtual field guide from the Atlantic Forestry Centre (Canadian Forest Service) provides excellent information sheets on many species of trees and shrubs native to Nova Scotia and Ontario. An online glossary of terms is included.

Newfoundland and Labrador

A Digital Flora of Newfoundland & Labrador
This website, developed by John Maunder, Curator Emeritus of Natural History, Provincial Museum of Newfoundland and Labrador, features digital images of the Province's diverse flora organized by family. Nomenclature follows the Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador (S.J. Meades et al. 2000).

Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador
An annotated checklist of the Provinces' vascular flora, compiled by Susan J. Meades, Stuart G. Hay, and Luc Brouillet (2000). A revision, including nomenclatural updates and new reports for the province, is under preparation.

Botany Newfoundland and Labrador
An excellent botanical resource by Newfoundland botanist Henry Mann and zoologist/photographer Ed Andrews, both associated with Sir Wilfred Grenfell College (MUN) in Corner Brook. One of the most important contributions of this website is the work on rare plants in Newfoundland, which include fact sheets written by Henry Mann and illustrations by Warrick Hewitt.

Wildflowers of Newfoundland
A beautiful collection of wildflower images by Karen Chappell of Bitstop.ca (Joe Dawson and Karen Chappell). Other photo galleries in this great website are sure to make displaced Newfoundlanders homesick. Just click on the 'Home' link at the top of their webpage to access other galleries.

Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia's Coastal Plain Flora
A website on the conservation and recovery of coastal plain species in Nova Scotia, compiled by the Atlantic Coastal Plain Flora (ACPF) Recovery Team. Access the plant images from the Photo Gallery.

Nova Scotia Wild Flora Society
This attractive website presents images of Nova Scotia's flora, as well as image collections of members' field trips. Articles and information on the society's programme are also included.


Andy's Northern Ontario Wildflowers
The personal website, and a labour of love, by northern Ontario resident Andy Fyon. One of the best resources on northeastern Ontario. This extensive website includes information of the wildflower species of various habitats, as well as information on ferns, mosses & lichens, and fungi. Check back often as this site is continuously growing.

A comprehensive forestry website, now hosted by Lakehead University in Thunder Bay, with general descriptions of plant and animal species in the Boreal Forest of the World section and local species in Ontario's Northwest Forest section. Also includes much information on the forest industry.

Flora and Fauna of the Upper Ottawa Valley
A gallery of beautiful digital images from Bob and Diana McElroy from the area of Petawawa, Mattawa, and Algonquin Park.

Fowler Herbarium Databases
This online database of about 140,000 specimens form the Fowler Herbarium at Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, includes separate databases for the Kingston Region (~17,000 specimens from eastern Ontario), the Arctic Region of North America (~7,000 specimens from NWT, Alaska, Yukon, Baffin Island, and Greenland), and the rest of North America (~14,000 specimens). This website also includes a Guide to Plant Collection and Identification.

NHIC (Natural Heritage Information Centre)
The Natural Heritage Information Centre (NHIC) is the branch of the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources that tracks rare and endangered species (both plant and animal) within Ontario. The NHIC newsletters contain excellent accounts of botanical exploration conducted by the NHIC staff throughout the less-explored reaches of our province.

Ontario Ferns
A very thorough website about ferns native to Ontario, with wonderful photographs by Walter Muma. Access the species list from this list of scientific names. Part of a series of other websites on trees and shrubs, wildflowers, grasses, and mosses, described below.

Ontario Grasses, Sedges, and Rushes
A newly expanded website on Ontario graminoids, by Walter Muma. A very useful feature of this website is an article on Carex by Carl Rothfels, summarizing the traits of 60 Carex species from the Hamilton, Ontario, region.

Ontario's Species at Risk
A website, from the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR), with a unique way to display information on rare species. Start by clicking on an ecoregion of the Ontario map, then select an organism category (plant, reptile, mammal, etc.) and a risk category (extinct, extirpated, endangered, threatened, or species of concern).

Ontario Trees & Shrubs
A growing website on Ontario woody plants, by Walter Muma, with excellent photos of habitats as well as diagnostic features. Access the species through this Latin Names list, which also includes scientific names. A companion to his websites on wildflowers, grasses, ferns, and mosses.

Ontario Weeds - Weed Gallery
A website from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Foods and Rural Affairs that provides links to informative webpages of Ontario's weedy plant species. See also these links to galleries of Noxious Weeds in Ontario, thumbnails of Ontario Weeds, and Milkweed Species in Ontario.

Ontario Wildflowers
One of a series of great websites by Walter Muma, this one on the wildflowers of Ontario. Access the species from this list of Wildflowers by Scientific Name or choose another method from the several offered. Orchid enthusiasts will want to check out his webpages on Ontario orchids. A companion to his other websites on Ontario trees and shrubs, graminoids, pteridophytes, and mosses, linked from his website.

Plants of Lanark County, Ontario
A checklist by David J. White of the wildflowers of Lanark County, located in eastern Ontario. The checklist is downloadable in .pdf format from the website. Useful habitat information for each species is also included.

Weeds in Ontario
Another website from the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs that provides a variety of informative Factsheets, Infosheets, and Publications on various weed species and related topics.

Prince Edward Island

The Macphail Woods
This excellent website on the Macphail Woods Ecological Forest Project provides maps and descriptions of the various nature trails, plus Nature Guides to trees, ferns, shrubs, wildflowers, and animals groups.


A website, en Français,with descriptions, synonymy, and images of the various species of fir, spruce, pine, maple, and oak. Pour chacun des genres ci-dessous (sapin, epicéa, pin, erable, et chêne), vous trouverez une fiche descriptive de chaque espèce, ainsi qu'un album photographique et des généralités botaniques.

Bryophytes du Québec
The Catalogue des Bryophytes du Québec et du Labrador, by Jean Faubert, published in Provancheria, No. 30 (2007) is included in this website.

Fleurs Sauvages sur l'Île d'Orléans
An attractive, non-technical website by Yves Gourdeau, in French and English, on the wildflowers of the Île d'Orléans, located near Québec City. The flower images are organized by flower colour and season.

Flore du Québec-Labrador Nordique
An introduction to the soon-to-be-published flora on northern Québec and Labrador.

La Flore du Québec
A website, en Français, with descriptions and very nice photographs of each species in their habitat. Link to the alphabetical list of scientific names.

Lexique Botanique Anglais-Français
A glossary of English botanical terms with French definitions.

Lexique Français de Termes Botaniques
A glossary of French botanical terms with French definitions.


Perennial Gardening on the Prairies
See what ornamental species survive in a well-cultivated garden in our northern climate (hardiness zones 2b-3a). Included are links to webpages on annuals, perennials, and grass species, as well as links to native plants. An excellent series of webpages by Maureen and Glen, Regina, SK, and A companion to their website on Saskatchewan Native Plants, one of my favourites.

Rangeland Ecosystems and Plants
A useful website with a lot of information on rangelands species, with species webpages written by students in the Range Ecosystem and Plants course at the University of Saskatchewan.

Saskatchewan Native Carnivorous Plants
Contains excellent images and non-technical descriptions to 10 species of insectivorous plants from Saskatchewan; part of the Saskatchewan Native Plants website.

Saskatchewan Native Orchids
Orchid enthusiasts from all across Canada will appreciate these non-technical descriptions and excellent images of 25 orchid species native to Saskatchewan; part of the Saskatchewan Native Plants website.

Saskatchewan Native Plants - Wildflowers
A very useful addition to the expanding list of websites on Canadian wildflowers. This wonderful website, from Maureen and Glen of Regina SK, includes webpages on prairie, forest, and wetland species, nearly all of which also occur in northern Ontario.

Virtual Herbarium - An Introduction to the Identification of Vascular Plants in Saskatchewan
In addition to the excellent interactive descriptions and images in the Virtual Herbarium, this website from the University of Saskatchewan contains an interactive key to the plant families represented in the Saskatchewan flora.

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