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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


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leaf What is an Herbarium?

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Northern Ontario Vegetation Type (V-type)


NE-V19: Black Spruce - Stairstep moss

Summary: A black spruce-dominated stand, with black spruce providing 21-40% cover in the overstorey and 6-10% cover in the understorey. Trembling aspen, jack pine, and white birch also occur in the overstorey, but with less frequency and less cover than black spruce. Balsam fir provides equal cover in the understorey (6-10% cover).

The shrub layer is dominated by Labrador tea (6-10% cover), with lowbush and velvetleaf blueberries each providing 2-5% cover. Bristly wild rose and bush honeysuckle may provide similar cover, but occurred in fewer than 2/3 of the sample plots.

The herb layer is moderately poor; it is dominated by the characteristic boreal forest species and creeping snowberry, each providing up to 5% cover. Dwarf raspberry, goldthread, largeleaf aster, and mountain rice grass provide similar cover, but in 1/3 to 2/3 of sample plots.

The forest floor is composed of a carpet of feathermoss, including Schreber's feathermoss (> 40% cover), stairstep moss and plume moss (each 6-10% cover), interspersed with patches of mainly coniferous leaf litter. Other moss species may occur, but with less cover and frequency.

Soil and Ecosite Types: The Black Spruce-Stairstep Moss Vegetation Type (NE-V19) may occur on a variety of dry to moist non-calcareous (acidic) soil types, including dry to fresh sandy soils (S1), fresh to moist coarse loamy soils (S7), and moist fine loamy to clayey soils (S14), as well as medium calcareous loamy to silty soils (S10). This vegetation type may be found on ecosites ES5m (Black Spruce-Medium Soil) and ES6m (Trembling Aspen-Black Spruce-Balsam Fir-Medium Soil).

Trees:
overstorey
black spruce (Picea mariana) [10]
trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) [6]
jack pine (Pinus banksiana) [6]
white birch (Betula papyrifera) [2]
regeneration
black spruce (Picea mariana)
balsam fir (Abies balsamea)
trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides)

Shrubs:
tall shrubs
showy mountain ash (Sorbus decora)
serviceberries (Amelanchier spp.)
low shrubs
Labrador tea (Rhododendron groenlandicum)
lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium)
velvetleaf blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilloides)
bristly wild rose (Rosa acicularis)
bush honeysuckle (Diervilla lonicera)

Dwarf Shrubs & Herbs:
dwarf shrubs
creeping snowberry (Gaultheria hispidula)
twinflower (Linnaea borealis)
dwarf raspberry (Rubus pubescens)
forbs
bunchberry (Cornus canadensis)
wild lily-of-the-valley (Maianthemum canadense)
bluebead lily (Clintonia borealis)
goldthread (Coptis trifolia)
largeleaf aster (Eurybia macrophylla)
starflower (Trientalis borealis)
sweet coltsfoot (Petasites frigidus var. palmatus)
wood anemone (Anemone quinquefolia)
wild strawberry (Fragaria virginiana)
graminoids
mountain rice grass (Oryzopsis asperifolia)

Bryophytes:
Schreber's feathermoss (Pleurozium schreberi)
stairstep moss (Hylocomium splendens)
plume moss (Ptilium crista-castrensis)
wavyleaf moss (Dicranum polysetum)
shaggy moss (or electrified cat's-tail) (Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus)
dusky broom moss (or curly heron's-bill) (Dicranum fuscescens)
naugehyde liverworts (Ptilidium sp.)

Lichens:
gray reindeer lichen (Cladina rangiferina)

Note: Species listed above are taken from the Vegetation type description and the Species Percentage Cover by Vegetation Type Tables (pg. D 34). Species are listed in order of most cover and abundance.

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