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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


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leaf What is an Herbarium?

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Northern Ontario Plant Database

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Northern Ontario Vegetation Type (V-type)


NE-V2: White Birch - Mountain Maple

Summary: A mixedwood stand with white birch as the dominant canopy species (up to 40% cover) and frequent occurrences of white spruce, but with <20% cover. Yellow birch, balsam fir, and red maple occur in 30-50% of stands. White pine occurred in only 20% of sample plots, but had significant cover (21-40%) when present. Tree species of less frequent occurrence (10% of stands) in NE-V2 include trembling aspen and white birch. Regeneration of predominantly balsam fir, with some white spruce and white birch, indicate succession to a conifer-dominated stand.

The shrub and herb layers are described as moderately rich, with mountain maple (21-40% cover) as the most frequent shrub species. Bush honeysuckle and Canada fly honeysuckle provide 2-5% cover each. Beaked hazel and lowbush blueberry occur in 1/3 to 2/3 of the sample plots, with 6-10% and 2-5% cover respectively.

The herb layer includes the characteristic boreal forest species as well as wild sarsaparilla and largeleaf aster (2-5% cover). Goldthread and undesignated violet species provide 2-5% cover in 1/3 to 2/3 of sample plots. The most common pteridophytes are the spinulose woodfern and ground pine (2-5% cover). Other clubmoss species (bristly and shining clubmoss) and bracken fern provide 2-5% cover in 1/3 to 2/3 of sample plots. In addition to Schreber's feathermoss (2-5% cover), the moss layer includes small, scattered patches of Dicranum mosses, as well as the common powderhorn. Brachythecium moss can be found growing on tree trunks and rotting logs.

Soil & Ecosite Types: The White Birch-Mountain Maple Vegetation Type (NE-V2) occurs on acidic (non-calcareous) soil types of dry to fresh coarse loams (S5), and fresh to moist medium loam to silty soils (S9, S11). Less frequently, this vegetation type occurs on very shallow soils over acidic bedrock (SS3). Vegetation type NE-V2 may occur on Ecosite Types ES 15 (Red Maple), ES 20 (White Pine-Hardwood Mixedwood), ES 1r (White Spruce-White Birch-Very Shallow Soil-Species Rich), ES 7c (Trembling Aspen-White Birch-Coarse Soil), and ES19 (White Pine-Red Pine-Mixedwood).

Trees:
overstorey
white birch (Betula papyrifera) [8]
white spruce (Picea glauca) [7]
balsam fir (Abies balsamea) [3]
red maple (Acer rubrum) [3]
yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) [3]
white pine (Pinus strobus) [2]
trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) [1]
white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) [1]
regeneration
balsam fir (Abies balsamea)
white spruce (Picea glauca)
white birch (Betula papyrifera)
red maple (Acer rubrum)

Shrubs:
tall shrubs
mountain maple (Acer spicatum)
beaked hazel (Corylus cornuta)
showy mountain ash (Sorbus decora)
serviceberry (Amelanchier spp.)
low shrubs
bush honeysuckle (Diervilla lonicera)
Canada fly honeysuckle (Lonicera canadensis)
lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium)

Dwarf Shrubs & Herbs:
dwarf shrubs
twinflower (Linnaea borealis)
forbs
largeleaf aster (Eurybia macrophylla)
wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis)
bluebead lily (Clintonia borealis)
bunchberry (Cornus canadensis)
wild lily-of-the-valley (Maianthemum canadense)
starflower (Trientalis borealis)
goldthread (Coptis trifolia)
violets (Viola spp.)
rose twisted-stalk (Streptopus lanceolatus)
graminoids
sedges (Carex spp.)

Ferns and Fern Allies:
ferns
spinulose woodfern (Dryopteris carthusiana)
bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum)
clubmosses
ground pine (Lycopodium dendroideum or Lycopodium obscurum)
shining clubmoss (Huperzia lucidula)
bristly (or interrupted) clubmoss (Lycopodium annotinum)

Bryophytes:
Schreber's feathermoss (Pleurozium schreberi)
dusky broom moss (or curly heron's-bill) (Dicranum fuscescens)
brachythecium mosses (Brachythecium spp.)
wavyleaf moss (Dicranum polysetum)

Lichens:
common powderhorn (Cladonia coniocraea)

Note: Species listed above are taken from the Vegetation type description and the Species Percentage Cover by Vegetation Type Tables (pg. D 34). Species are listed in order of most cover and abundance.

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