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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


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leaf What is an Herbarium?

leaf Genus Descriptions

leaf Species Descriptions

leaf Ontario FEC V-Types

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Northern Ontario Plant Database

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Northern Ontario Vegetation Type (V-type)


NE-V24: Black Spruce - Speckled Alder - Labrador Tea - Sphagnum

Summary: A wet, conifer stand with black spruce dominant in the overstorey (21-40% cover); larch and balsam fir may also occur in the overstorey, but cover values were insignificant. Regeneration of black spruce and balsam fir each provide 6-10% cover in the understorey.

The shrub layer is dominated by speckled alder, providing 11-20% cover in the tall shrub layer, and ericaceous shrubs in the low shrub layer, including Labrador tea (6-10% cover), lowbush and velvetleaf blueberries (2-5% cover), and less consistently, sheep laurel, also with 2-5% cover.

The herb layer is moderately poor, with sedges, creeping snowberry, and goldthread providing the most cover (2-5%). The characteristic boreal forest species occur with less frequency than the previous species, except for bunchberry, which also provides 2-5% cover. Woodland horsetail provided 2-5% cover in 1/3 to 2/3 of sample plots, with 2-5% cover. The forest floor is dominated by a carpet of feathermosses, in slightly drier areas, and Sphagnum species in slightly wetter areas. The dominant feathermoss species include Schreber's feathermoss (21-40% cover), plume moss, and stairstep moss, along with Dicranum mosses (each 2-5% cover). Sphagnum species include common green peatmoss (21-40% cover), midway peatmoss (11-20% cover), and northern peatmoss (6-10% cover). Wulf's peatmoss, often found around the base of tree trunks, provides 2-5% cover.

Soil and Ecosite Types: The Black Spruce-Speckled Alder-Labrador Tea-Sphagnum Vegetation Type (NE-V24) occurs on wet, deep organic soils (S17, S18). The NE-V24 vegetation type is most commonly found on ecosite types ES 12 (Black Spruce-Larch-Labrador Tea-Organic soil) and ES 9p (Black Spruce-Larch-Moist Soil-Species Poor), but may also occur on types ES 5f (Black Spruce-Fine Soil), ES 8 (Black Spruce-Feathermoss-Sphagnum-Moist Soil), ES 13p (Black Spruce-Larch-Speckled Alder-Organic Soil-Species Poor), and ES 11 (Black Spruce-Labrador Tea-Organic Soil).

Trees:
overstorey
black spruce (Picea mariana) [10]
larch (Larix laricina) [3]
balsam fir (Abies balsamea) [2]
regeneration
black spruce (Picea mariana)
balsam fir (Abies balsamea)

Shrubs:
tall shrubs
speckled alder (Alnus incana subsp. rugosa)
serviceberries (Amelanchier spp.)
showy mountain ash (Sorbus decora)
low shrubs
Labrador tea (Rhododendron groenlandicum)
lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium)
velvetleaf blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilloides)
sheep laurel (Kalmia angustifolia)

Dwarf Shrubs & Herbs:
dwarf shrubs
creeping snowberry (Gaultheria hispidula)
dwarf raspberry (Rubus pubescens)
twinflower (Linnaea borealis)
small cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus)
forbs
bunchberry (Cornus canadensis)
goldthread (Coptis trifolia)
bluebead lily (Clintonia borealis)
threeleaf false Solomon's seal (Maianthemum trifolium)
wild lily-of-the-valley (Maianthemum canadense)
naked mitrewort (Mitella nuda)
graminoids
sedges (Carex spp.)

Ferns and Fern Allies:
horsetails
woodland horsetail (Equisetum sylvaticum)

Bryophytes:
Schreber's feathermoss (Pleurozium schreberi)
common green peatmoss (Sphagnum girgensohnii)
midway (or red fatleaf) peatmoss (Sphagnum magellanicum)
northern (or lady's tresses) peatmoss (Sphagnum capillifolium)
plume moss (Ptilium crista-castrensis)
stairstep moss (Hylocomium splendens)
wavyleaf moss (Dicranum polysetum)
Wulf's peatmoss (Sphagnum wulfianum)
dusky broom moss (or curly heron's-bill) (Dicranum fuscescens)

Lichens:
gray reindeer lichen (Cladina rangiferina)
mealy pixie cup (Cladonia chlorophaea)
common powderhorn (Cladonia coniocraea)

Note: Species listed above are taken from the Vegetation type description and the Species Percentage Cover by Vegetation Type Tables (pg. D 34). Species are listed in order of most cover and abundance.
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