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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


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leaf What is an Herbarium?

leaf Genus Descriptions

leaf Species Descriptions

leaf Ontario FEC V-Types

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Northern Ontario Vegetation Type (V-type)


NE-V9: Black Ash - Speckled Alder - Sedge

Summary: A hardwood swamp forest type dominated by black ash in the canopy (21-40% cover) and understorey (11-20% cover). A variety of other hardwood and coniferous species may occur, but not with more than 10% cover.

The shrub layer is dominated by speckled alder (21-40% cover), mountain maple (6-10% cover), and red osier dogwood and wild raspberry (2-5% cover). The herb layer is rich, dominated by sedges and drooping woodreed (11-20% cover), dwarf raspberry (6-10% cover), fragrant bedstraw, violets, and wild lily-of- the-valley (2-5% cover). A large number of other herbaceous species occur in less frequency, most with less than 5% cover. Spinulose shield fern and woodland horsetail are the most common pteridophytes, with northern lady fern occurring less frequently.

The forest floor is covered with deciduous leaf litter, but the wet soils promote decomposition, so the moss layer is fairy well developed, with a wide variety of species present with 1-5% cover.

Soil & Ecosite Types: The Black Ash-Speckled Alder-Sedge Vegetation Type (NE-V9) occurs on moist to wet soils, including moist fine loamy to clayey soils (S14), shallow moist black organic soils (S15), and deep humic organic soils (S19). This vegetation type is restricted to Ecosite type ES13r (White Cedar-Black Spruce-Organic Soil-Species Rich).

Trees:
overstorey
black ash (Fraxinus nigra) [10]
balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) [2]
white birch (Betula papyrifera) [2]
balsam fir (Abies balsamea) [2]
white elm (Ulmus americana) [2]
regeneration
black ash (Fraxinus nigra)
balsam fir (Abies balsamea)
balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera)
white spruce (Picea glauca)

Shrubs:
tall shrubs
speckled alder (Alnus incana subsp. rugosa)
mountain maple (Acer spicatum)
low shrubs
red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea)
wild red raspberry (Rubus idaeus)
bristly black currant (Ribes lacustre)
bristly wild rose (Rosa acicularis)

Dwarf Shrubs & Herbs:
dwarf shrubs
dwarf raspberry (Rubus pubescens)
forbs
wild-lily-of-the-valley (Maianthemum canadense)
fragrant bedstraw (Galium triflorum)
violets (Viola spp.)
wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis)
naked mitrewort (Mitella nuda)
pyrola (Pyrola spp.)
bunchberry (Cornus canadensis)
goldthread (Coptis trifolia)
largeleaf aster (Eurybia macrophylla)
rough goldenrod (Solidago rugosa)
starflower (Trientalis borealis)
sweet coltsfoot (Petasites frigidus var. palmatus)
wood sorrel (Oxalis acetosella var. montana)
graminoids
drooping woodreed (Cinna latifolia)
sedges (Carex spp.)
Canada bluejoint (Calamagrostis canadensis)

Ferns & Fern Allies:
ferns
spinulose shield fern (Dryopteris carthusiana)
northern lady fern (Athyrium filix-femina)
horsetails
woodland horsetail (Equisetum sylvaticum)

Bryophytes:
northern tree moss (Climacium dendroides)
common fern moss (Thuidium delicatulum)
Schreber's feathermoss (Pleurozium schreberi)
common four-tooth moss (Tetraphis pellucida)
dusky broom moss (or curly heron's-bill) (Dicranum fuscescens)
woodsy moss (Plagiomnium cuspidatum)
sickle moss (Sanionia uncinata)
calliergon moss (Calliergon spp.)
plagiothecium moss (Plagiothecium spp.)

Note: Species listed above are taken from the Vegetation type description and the Species Percentage Cover by Vegetation Type Tables (pg. D 34). Species are listed in order of most cover and abundance.
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