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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


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leaf What is an Herbarium?

leaf Genus Descriptions

leaf Species Descriptions

leaf Ontario FEC V-Types

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Northern Ontario Plant Database

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Northern Ontario Vegetation Type (V-type)


NW-V15: White Spruce Mixedwood


Summary: A mixedwood stand dominated by white spruce, and with considerable amounts of balsam fir and trembling aspen in the canopy. White birch and black spruce respectively occurred in 50% and 40% of sample plots, but other conifer and hardwood species occur with low frequency. The regeneration layer is dominated by balsam fir, with trembling aspen occurring in low numbers. The shrub layer is dominated by tall shrubs, such as mountain maple, beaked hazel, and showy mountain ash. Low shrubs include bush honeysuckle and prickly wild rose.

The species-rich herb layer contains wild sarsaparilla, dwarf raspberry, the characteristic boreal forest species, rose twisted-stalk, fragrant bedstraw, and largeleaf aster. The presence of kidneyleaf violet, sweet coltsfoot, and naked mitrewort indicate calcareous substrates or soils. The forest floor is covered mainly by broadleaf litter, with patches of feathermosses and conifer litter.

The White Spruce Mixedwood V-type (NW-V15) is similar to NW-V14, but NW-V15 is characterised by a white spruce-dominated canopy. It is also similar to NW-24, but this type can be distinguished by its smaller hardwood component.

Soil & Ecosite Types: The White Spruce Mixedwood (NW-V15) Vegetation Type occurs on Ecosite Types ES 21 (Fir-Spruce Mixedwood, fresh, coarse loamy soil), ES 27 (Fir-Spruce Mixedwood, fresh, silty-fine loamy soil), and ES 32 (Fir-Spruce Mixedwood, moist, silty-clayey soil). It can occur on a wide variety of soils types, but is usually found on deep, fresh to moist mineral soils (S3, S4, S10, and SS6).

Note: The percentage of sample plots that contained overstorey tree species is given in square brackets after each scientific name. Other species are listed in order of frequency, according to the NW-FEC manual.

Trees:
overstorey:
white spruce (Picea glauca) [10]
balsam fir (Abies balsamea) [7]
trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) [6]
white birch (Betula papyrifera) [5]
black spruce (Picea mariana) [4]
balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) [1]
red maple (Acer rubrum) [1]
jack pine (Pinus banksiana) [1]
regeneration:
balsam fir (Abies balsamea)
trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides)
Shrubs:
tall shrubs:
mountain maple (Acer spicatum)
beaked hazel (Corylus cornuta)
showy mountain ash (Sorbus decora)
serviceberries (Amelanchier spp.)
low shrubs:
bush honeysuckle (Diervilla lonicera)
prickly wild rose (Rosa acicularis)
Dwarf Shrubs & Herbs:
dwarf shrubs:
dwarf raspberry (Rubus pubescens)
twinflower (Linnaea borealis)
forbs:
wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis)
bunchberry (Cornus canadensis)
bluebead lily (Clintonia borealis)
wild lily-of-the-valley (Maianthemum canadense)
rose twisted-stalk (Streptopus lanceolatus)
starflower (Trientalis borealis)
fragrant bedstraw (Galium triflorum)
largeleaf aster (Eurybia macrophylla)
naked mitrewort (Mitella nuda)
kidneyleaf violet (Viola reinfolia)
wood anemone (Anemone quinquefolia)
sweet coltsfoot (Petasites frigidus var. palmatus)
Bryophytes:
Schreber's feathermoss (Pleurozium schreberi)
plume moss (Ptilium crista-castrensis)
shaggy moss (Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus)
woodsy moss (Plagiomnium cuspidatum)
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