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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


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leaf What is an Herbarium?

leaf Genus Descriptions

leaf Species Descriptions

leaf Ontario FEC V-Types

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Northern Ontario Plant Database

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Northern Ontario Vegetation Type (V-type)


NW-V16: Balsam Fir - White Spruce Mixedwood / Feathermoss


Summary: A mixedwood stand dominated by balsam fir and/or white spruce, and white birch in the canopy. Black spruce and trembling aspen also occur frequently. The regeneration layer is dominated by balsam fir. The shrub layer is diverse, with low shrubs, such as bush honeysuckle and velvetleaf blueberry, occurring more frequently. The most common tall shrubs are showy mountain ash and mountain maple.

A wide variety of dwarf shrubs occur in the herb layer, including twinflower, dwarf raspberry, and creeping snowberry. The characteristic boreal forest species are all present, as well as wild sarsaparilla, rose twisted-stalk, goldthread, and bristly clubmoss. The presence of kidneyleaf violet indicates calcareous substrates or soils. The forest floor is covered by extensive carpets of feathermoss, with smaller patches of broadleaf and conifer litter.

This V-type is similar to the White Spruce Mixedwood type (NW-V15), but the latter is characterised by a white spruce-dominated canopy. Also, NW-V16 can be distinguished by its dominant feathermoss cover and greater diversity of moss species on the forest floor. Another similar stand type is the White Spruce-Balsam Fir/Feathermoss (NW-25), which can be differentiated by its low hardwood content.

Soil & Ecosite Types: The Balsam Fir Mixedwood type (NW-V16) vegetation type occurs mainly on Ecosite Types ES 21 (Fir-Spruce Mixedwood, fresh, coarse loamy soil) and ES 27 (Fir-Spruce Mixedwood, fresh, silty-fine loamy soil). It may be found on a wide range of soil types, but occurs primarily on fresh to moist, upland mineral soils (including S3, S4, and SS6.

Note: The percentage of sample plots that contained overstorey tree species is given in square brackets after each scientific name. Other species are listed in order of frequency, according to the NW-FEC manual.

Trees:
overstorey:
balsam fir (Abies balsamea) [8]
white spruce (Picea glauca) [7]
white birch (Betula papyrifera) [7]
black spruce (Picea mariana) [6]
trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) [6]
jack pine (Pinus banksiana) [4]
regeneration:
balsam fir (Abies balsamea)
black spruce (Picea mariana)
Shrubs:
tall shrubs:
showy mountain ash (Sorbus decora)
mountain maple (Acer spicatum)
low shrubs:
bush honeysuckle (Diervilla lonicera)
velvetleaf blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilloides)
prickly wild rose (Rosa acicularis)
Dwarf Shrubs & Herbs:
dwarf shrubs:
twinflower (Linnaea borealis)
dwarf raspberry (Rubus pubescens)
creeping snowberry (Gaultheria hispidula)
forbs:
bunchberry (Cornus canadensis)
bluebead lily (Clintonia borealis)
wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis)
wild lily-of-the-valley (Maianthemum canadense)
starflower (Trientalis borealis)
rose twisted-stalk (Streptopus lanceolatus)
goldthread (Coptis trifolia)
kidneyleaf violet (Viola reinfolia)
Ferns & Fern Allies:
clubmosses:
bristly (or interrupted) clubmoss Lycopodium annotinum)
Bryophytes:
Schreber's feathermoss (Pleurozium schreberi)
plume moss (Ptilium crista-castrensis)
wavyleaf moss (Dicranum polysetum)
stairstep moss (Hylocomium splendens)
dusky broom moss (Dicranum fuscescens)
shaggy moss (Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus)
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