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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


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leaf What is an Herbarium?

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leaf Ontario FEC V-Types

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Northern Ontario Plant Database

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Northern Ontario Vegetation Type (V-type)


NW-V19: Black Spruce Mixedwood / Herb Rich


Summary: A mixedwood stand dominated by black spruce, and with trembling aspen as an associate species in the canopy. Tree species that occurred with 30-40% frequency in the canopy layer of sample plots include jack pine, balsam fir, and white birch. A few other tree species occurred with less frequency. Balsam fir and black spruce dominate the regeneration. The shrub layer is composed mainly of scattered low shrubs, including blueberries, prickly wild rose, bush honeysuckle, and Labrador tea. The tall shrub may contain an occasional serviceberry or showy mountain ash.

The rich herb layer contains several dwarf shrubs, including twinflower, dwarf raspberry, and creeping snowberry, as well as the characteristic boreal forest species. Wild sarsaparilla, goldthread, largeleaf aster, and rose twisted-stalk may also be found, while the presence of sweet coltsfoot and kidneyleaf violet indicate calcareous substrates or soils.

Soil & Ecosite Types: The Black Spruce Mixedwood/Herb Rich Vegetation Type (NW-V19) occurs most commonly on Ecosite Types ES 21 (Fir-Spruce Mixedwood, fresh, coarse loamy soil), ES 32 (Fir-Spruce Mixedwood, moist, silty-clayey soil), and ES 14 (Pine-Spruce Mixedwood, sandy soil). It can be found on a variety of fresh to moist, mineral soil types (including S3, S9,S10 and SS6), and occurs most commonly on calcareous, especially in the eastern portions of northwestern Ontario.

Note: The percentage of sample plots that contained overstorey tree species is given in square brackets after each scientific name. Other species are listed in order of frequency, according to the NW-FEC manual.

Trees:
overstorey:
black spruce (Picea mariana) [10]
trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) [7]
jack pine (Pinus banksiana) [4]
balsam fir (Abies balsamea) [4]
white birch (Betula papyrifera) [3]
white spruce (Picea glauca) [2]
balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) [1]
regeneration:
balsam fir (Abies balsamea)
black spruce (Picea mariana)
trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides)
Shrubs:
tall shrubs:
serviceberries (Amelanchier spp.)
showy mountain ash (Sorbus decora)
low shrubs:
velvetleaf blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilloides)
prickly wild rose (Rosa acicularis)
lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium)
bush honeysuckle (Diervilla lonicera)
Labrador tea (Rhododendron groenlandicum)
Dwarf Shrubs & Herbs:
dwarf shrubs:
twinflower (Linnaea borealis)
dwarf raspberry (Rubus pubescens)
creeping snowberry (Gaultheria hispidula)
forbs:
bunchberry (Cornus canadensis)
wild lily-of-the-valley (Maianthemum canadense)
bluebead lily (Clintonia borealis)
starflower (Trientalis borealis)
wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis)
goldthread (Coptis trifolia)
sweet coltsfoot (Petasites frigidus var. palmatus)
largeleaf aster (Eurybia macrophylla)
rose twisted-stalk (Streptopus lanceolatus)
kidneyleaf violet (Viola reinfolia)
Bryophytes:
Schreber's feathermoss (Pleurozium schreberi)
plume moss (Ptilium crista-castrensis)
wavyleaf moss (Dicranum polysetum)
stairstep moss (Hylocomium splendens)
shaggy moss (Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus)
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