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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


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leaf What is an Herbarium?

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leaf Ontario FEC V-Types

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Northern Ontario Vegetation Type (V-type)


NW-V22: Cedar (inc. Mixedwood) / Speckled Alder / Sphagnum


Summary: A mixedwood stand dominated by white cedar in the overstorey, with black spruce occurring as the next most common canopy species. Other species, occurring with less than 40% frequency in sample plots, include balsam fir, white birch, and tamarack. This type occupies small, lowland areas, while the previous cedar type is more typical of upland sites. Balsam fir and cedar dominate the regeneration and may form dense thickets with speckled alder in the shrub layer. The low shrub layer is rather sparse, with Labrador tea and red osier dogwood occurring as the most common species.

The herb layer contains several dwarf shrubs, including creeping snowberry, dwarf raspberry, and twinflower. The characteristic boreal forest species, are present, as are goldthread and naked mitrewort. The occurrence of kidneyleaf violet, often found with naked mitrewort, indicates calcareous substrates or soils. But characteristic of this cedar type are species typically restricted to wet organic sites, such as threeleaf smilacina, sedges, and woodland horsetail; sedges are reported to be more abundant in the eastern portions of northwestern Ontario. The forest floor, which is composed of slightly drier hummocks and wet depressions, supports feathermosses (on hummocks) and peatmoss species in wetter areas.

Soil & Ecosite Types: The Cedar (inc. Mixedwood) / Speckled Alder / Sphagnum Vegetation Type (NW-V22) typically occurs on Ecosite Types ES 37 (Rich Swamp: Cedar (Other Conifer), organic soil). On rich sites in the Atikokan, Fort Frances, and Dryden areas, it may also be found on ES 32 (Fir-Spruce Mixedwood, moist, silty-clayey soil). This vegetation type occurs on wet, organic soils (S12S, S12F, S11, and SS9).

Note: The percentage of sample plots that contained overstorey tree species is given in square brackets after each scientific name. Other species are listed in order of frequency, according to the NW-FEC manual.

Trees:
overstorey:
white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) [10]
black spruce (Picea mariana) [7]
balsam fir (Abies balsamea) [4]
white birch (Betula papyrifera) [2]
tamarack or larch (Larix laricina) [1]
white spruce (Picea glauca) [1]
black ash (Fraxinus nigra) [1]
regeneration:
balsam fir (Abies balsamea)
white cedar (Thuja occidentalis)
black spruce (Picea mariana)
Shrubs:
tall shrubs:
speckled alder (Alnus incana subsp. rugosa)
mountain maple (Acer spicatum)
red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea)
low shrubs:
Labrador tea (Rhododendron groenlandicum)
prickly wild rose (Rosa acicularis)
velvetleaf blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilloides)
Dwarf Shrubs & Herbs:
dwarf shrubs:
creeping snowberry (Gaultheria hispidula)
dwarf raspberry (Rubus pubescens)
twinflower (Linnaea borealis)
forbs:
starflower (Trientalis borealis)
bunchberry (Cornus canadensis)
goldthread (Coptis trifolia)
naked mitrewort (Mitella nuda)
wild lily-of-the-valley (Maianthemum canadense)
kidneyleaf violet (Viola renifolia)
fragrant bedstraw (Galium triflorum)
threeleaf smilacina (Maianthemum trifolium)
bluebead lily (Clintonia borealis)
graminoids:
two-seeded sedge (Carex disperma)
sheathed sedge (Carex vaginata)
Ferns & Fern Allies:
horsetails:
woodland horsetail (Equisetum sylvaticum)
Bryophytes:
Schreber's feathermoss (Pleurozium schreberi)
stairstep moss (Hylocomium splendens)
shaggy moss (Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus)
common green peatmoss (Sphagnum girgensohnii)
northern peatmoss (Sphagnum capillifolium)
plume moss (Ptilium crista-castrensis)
wavyleaf moss (Dicranum polysetum)
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