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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


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leaf What is an Herbarium?

leaf Genus Descriptions

leaf Species Descriptions

leaf Ontario FEC V-Types

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Northern Ontario Plant Database

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Northern Ontario Vegetation Type (V-type)


NW-V24: White Spruce - Balsam Fir / Shrub Rich


Summary: A conifer stand dominated by white spruce and balsam fir in the canopy, with black spruce, jack pine, and white birch as minor canopy components. Regeneration is dominated by balsam fir. The shrub layer contains several tall shrubs, including serviceberry, showy mountain ash, mountain maple, beaked hazel, and on wetter sites, speckled alder. Low shrubs are very sparse, with only prickly wild rose listed; dwarf shrubs are listed with the herbs.

The species-rich herb layer contains dwarf raspberry and all of the characteristic boreal forest species, plus wild sarsaparilla, fragrant bedstraw, rose twisted-stalk, and largeleaf aster. Several other herbs occur, but with less frequency. The presence of kidneyleaf violet and sweet coltsfoot indicate calcareous substrates or soils. The forest floor is covered by a combination of conifer and broadleaf litter, and patches of feathermoss.

Soil & Ecosite Types: The White Spruce - Balsam Fir / Shrub Rich Vegetation Type (NW-V24) is found mainly on Ecosite Type ES 17 (White Cedar, fresh-moist, coarse-fine loamy soil), though it can occur in patches within sites ES 21 (Fir-Spruce Mixedwood, fresh, coarse loamy soil), and ES 27 (Fir-Spruce Mixedwood, fresh, silty-fine loamy soil). It can be found on a variety of deep, fresh to moist, mineral soil types, but occurs most commonly on S3, S4, S6, and S10.

Note: The percentage of sample plots that contained overstorey tree species is given in square brackets after each scientific name. Other species are listed in order of frequency, according to the NW-FEC manual.

Trees:
overstorey:
white spruce (Picea glauca) [8]
balsam fir (Abies balsamea) [7]
black spruce (Picea mariana) [3]
jack pine (Pinus banksiana) [2]
white birch (Betula papyrifera) [2]
regeneration:
balsam fir (Abies balsamea)
Shrubs:
tall shrubs
serviceberries (Amelanchier spp.)
showy mountain ash (Sorbus decora)
mountain maple (Acer spicatum)
beaked hazel (Corylus cornuta)
speckled alder (Alnus incana subsp. rugosa)
low shrubs
bush honeysuckle (Diervilla lonicera)
prickly wild rose (Rosa acicularis)
Dwarf Shrubs & Herbs:
dwarf shrubs
dwarf raspberry (Rubus pubescens)
twinflower (Linnaea borealis)
forbs
bluebead lily (Clintonia borealis)
wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis)
bunchberry (Cornus canadensis)
fragrant bedstraw (Galium triflorum)
wild lily-of-the-valley (Maianthemum canadense)
rose twisted-stalk (Streptopus lanceolatus)
largeleaf aster (Eurybia macrophylla)
starflower (Trientalis borealis)
naked mitrewort (Mitella nuda)
wood anemone (Anemone quinquefolia)
kidneyleaf violet (Viola renifolia)
sweet coltsfoot (Petasites frigidus var. palmatus)
wild strawberry (Fragaria virginiana)
Bryophytes:
Schreber's feathermoss (Pleurozium shreberi)
plume moss (Ptilium crista-castrensis)
shaggy moss (Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus)
wavyleaf moss (Dicranum polysetum)
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