head image
filler Home button Advanced search Herberia Partners Herbaria team members Herberia links Contact
family select
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


genus select
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


search



leaf What is an Herbarium?

leaf Genus Descriptions

leaf Species Descriptions

leaf Ontario FEC V-Types

leaf Bibliography

leaf Terminology

leaf Who Collects the Plants?

leaf Collector Biographies

leaf Nomenclature Primer

leaf Website Information

Northern Ontario Plant Database

leafleaf

Northern Ontario Vegetation Type (V-type)


NW-V4: White Birch Hardwood & Mixedwood


Summary: A hardwood or mixedwood stand dominated by white birch in the canopy, though balsam fir is most common in the regeneration. In 30-40% of sample plots, conifer species such as balsam fir, spruces, and jack pine were also present. The shrub layer contains a mixture of tall and low shrubs, with mountain maple and showy mountain ash occurring most frequently. The low shrub layer includes bush honeysuckle and blueberries.

The herb layer is more diverse than the shrub layer, and includes all of the characteristic boreal forest species, as well as bluebead lily, wild sarsaparilla, rose twisted-stalk, and largeleaf aster. The forest floor is covered with broadleaf litter and scattered feathermoss patches.

Soil & Ecosite Types: The White Birch Hardwood & Mixedwood Vegetation Type (NW-V4) occurs in Site Regions 3S, 4S, and 3W. It is found most commonly in the eastern portion of Site Region 3W, near Lake Superior in the Marathon/White River area, where balsam fir may be more common than white birch in both the canopy and regeneration layers. These stands therefore appear similar to trembling aspen dominated stands with balsam fir as an associate species (NW-V6, NW-V7, NW-V8, and NW-V9).

In Site Regions 3S and 4S, NW-V4 stands with jack pine and black spruce as canopy associates resemble the Trembling Aspen-Black Spruce-Jack Pine/Low Shrub type (NW-V10). This V-Type occurs on Ecosite Types ES 16 (Hardwood-Fir-Spruce Mixedwood, sandy soil), ES 19 (Hardwood-Fir-Spruce Mixedwood, fresh, sandy-coarse loamy soil), ES 28 (Hardwood-Fir-Spruce Mixedwood, fresh, silty soil), and ES 29 (Hardwood-Fir-Spruce Mixedwood, fresh, fine loamy-clayey soil). This vegetation type typically occurs on deep to moderately deep, fresh to moist, coarse-textured, acidic (non- calcareous) mineral soils (S1, S2, S3), though occasional sites may have very shallow soils (SS6).

Note: The percentage of sample plots that contained overstorey tree species is given in square brackets after each scientific name. Other species are listed in order of frequency, according to the NW-FEC manual.

Trees:
overstorey:
white birch (Betula papyrifera) [10]
balsam fir (Abies balsamea) [4]
white spruce (Picea glauca) [4]
black spruce (Picea mariana) [3]
jack pine (Pinus banksiana) [3]
trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) [1]
regeneration:
balsam fir (Abies balsamea)
Shrubs:
tall shrubs:
mountain maple (Acer spicatum)
showy mountain ash (Sorbus decora)
serviceberries (Amelanchier spp.)
low shrubs:
bush honeysuckle (Diervilla lonicera)
lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium)
velvetleaf blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilloides)
Dwarf Shrubs & Herbs:
dwarf shrubs:
twinflower (Linnaea borealis)
forbs:
bluebead lily (Clintonia borealis)
bunchberry (Cornus canadensis)
wild lily-of-the-valley (Maianthemum canadense)
wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis)
starflower (Trientalis borealis)
rose twisted-stalk (Streptopus lanceolatus)
largeleaf aster (Eurybia macrophylla)
violets (Viola spp.)
Ferns & Fern Allies:
clubmosses:
bristly (or interrupted) clubmoss Lycopodium annotinum)
Bryophytes:
Schreber's feathermoss (Pleurozium schreberi)
plume moss (Ptilium crista-castrensis)
wavyleaf moss (Dicranum polysetum)
Last Modified: