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Vascular Plant Families - Trees & Shrubs - Gymnosperms - Wildflowers - Graminoids
Pteridophytes - Bryophytes - Lichens
Cultivated Plants - Rare Plants - Weeds & Invasive Species - Poisonous Plants - Ethnobotany - First Nations
North America - Canada - U.S.A. - Other Countries
Taxonomic Databases - Miscellany - Glossaries & Dictionaries

Choose one of the links above for a list of plant-related websites about that category. Selected websites include only non-commercial, free-access sites that do not require passwords. The links provided have all been checked as of April 18, 2008, but visitors should note that most large websites have a regular downtime for editing and uploading more information. Often, this downtime occurs on the weekends, especially Sunday night (students take note!). If you find a link that doesn't work, try that site again at a different time or on a different day; if it still does not work, please report the problematic link to the NOPD.

Other Countries

Some bilingual websites are noted, but most sites are written in the language of that country. This should not deter you, however, from accessing the plant photos through the list of plant names.

World Floras at eFloras.org
A companion to the Flora of North America website; this site links to all the online floras published by the Missouri Botanical Garden and the Harvard University botanical databases.


The Wildflower Society of Western Australia
A fascinating website that provides lots of information on the unique flora of western Australia. One of the best features for people who have the rare opportunity to visit western Australia from our northern hemisphere are the maps of interesting wildflower hotspots.

Western Australian Wildflowers
A beautiful image collection of flowering plants unknown to most Canadians. Provides a taste of world floral diversity.

Wild Flowers of Australia and Tasmania
A website specifically on the unique and fascinating flora of south west Australia and Tasmania, compiled by Dr. P.J. Llewellyn, and a companion to his Wildflowers of the British Isles and Wildflowers of Europe websites. Access the A-Z Thumbnail Index of Australian Plants to view the species pages, which include wonderful, clear photographs and interesting descriptive information on each species.


Botanik im Bild - Wildplants of Austria
One of the finest image collections on the internet. This website presents plants in alphabetical order (See the Family List) and includes detailed close-up images of flowers and fruits. Text is in German, but the images are well worth many return visits.


The Ecology of Commanster, Belgium
A truly wonderful website by Jim Lindsey, Conservateur de la Reserve naturelle de Commanster, a small village in the Belgian High Ardennes. This site includes well-illustrated webpages on Belgian plants and animals. Each habitat link (forest, hedgerow, grassland, heath, bog, streams, ponds) brings you to a page with an image of the habitat, plus many thumbnails of the principle plants, as well as links to the vertebrates, invertebrates, and mushrooms of that area. Each species page includes features such as habitat, leaf, flower, fruit, and when known, pollinators, nesters, seed dispersal methods, parasites, herbivores, frugivores, and granivores! Plants are organized according to scientific name, but common names are provided in English, French, Dutch, and German. A great site for ecologists, entomologists, and ornithologists too.


The Bulgarian Flora Online
A bilingual website on the Bulgarian flora that features spectacular digital images by Kiril Metodiev. Access the images from the Family List or Species List.

Czech Republic

PhotoGallery Wildlife Pictures - Plants
This gallery of wildflower photographs by Josef Hlasek offers superb images, usually many of each species. The galleries are arranged according to family name and plant type, which makes it easy to find species. Click on this link to see his other fine galleries.


Biodiversity of the Hengduan Mountains
An attractive website featuring the plants and fungi of south-central China, described as a biodiversity portal for the Sino-Himalayan region. Visitors can access information on past and current expedition, specimen in the Harvard University Herbaria, and images of the flora.

Chinese-English Glossary of Botanical Terms
A glossary Chinese botanical terminology from Harvard University, compiled by Susan Marie Rossi-Wilcox.

Flora of China
Another comprehensive and excellent flora published by the Missouri Botanical Garden. This is an ongoing work and volumes are added as they are published. The text is in English, but common names are in Chinese. Links to detailed botanical illustrations for many species are also included.

Moss Flora of China
The format of this online resource is similar to the Flora of China and the Flora of North America. One very useful feature of the online version of this flora is the inclusion of distribution maps of both China and North America for species that have distributions in both hemispheres. Links to the excellent illustrations from the Bryophyte Flora of North America have also been added.


Flora Danica, the Book
http://www.kb.dk/en/tema/floradanica/se _fd.html
An illustrated book on the flora of Denmark, begun in 1761 and finished in 1874. Search by Issue and Plate to view the over 3,200 detailed botanical illustrations included in this classic book.

My Favorit Fungi Images
A beautiful image collection of Scandinavian fungi from Denmark, featuring the images of Flemming V. Larsen.

England, Great Britain

A Photo Flora of the Devon and Cornwall Peninsula
A beautiful website of over 5,000 images by David Fenwick. Images are organized by scientific name, native plant group, or cultivated species. Scroll down to the Alien Plant Species and Garden Escape Gallery for a unique look at which North American species become invasive in Europe.

BioImages: The Virtual Field-Guide (UK)
An excellent collection of 53,000 images from Great Britain by Malcolm Storey. This website has been in existence since 1998 and includes habit and/or closeup images of each species. This shortcut provides a list of the various categories (plant and animal) under which the images are filed. An interesting feature of the website is the list of herbivores or detritivores, included under the heading 'Feeding and other inter-species relationships,' known to make use of each species.

British Wildflowers
This outstanding website, compiled by John Somerville, features excellent digital images from many photographers of over 1600 species found in Britain and Ireland. Images are arranged according to common name, but the scientific name appears with the images. This website also includes links to British Trees and Shrubs; Grasses, Sedges, Rushes, and Ferns; and Brambles (Rubus species).

Bryophyte of the Month
A webpage of stunning images of British bryophytes from the comprehensive website British Bryological Society. View previous images from the list along the left side of the webpage.

This comprehensive websites on native wildflowers and garden plants of the British Isles (and northwest Europe) by John Crellin, features some of the very best photographs on the net. You can access the images from this attractive multi-page Index of thumbnails, organized by scientific name, or choose any number of galleries from the home page. So much to explore!

Moss Images
A well-organized website of excellent images by Des Callaghan of 301 bryophyte species as seen in their natural habitat in the British Isles. Each image is accompanied by a brief paragraph with the common name, habitat description, and collection information.

Mosses and Liverworts in Wales
A very attractive website on the bryophytes of Wales; many of the species also occur in Ontario. This website, constructed by Alan Hale, including species descriptions and image, plus micrographs illustrating the reproductive organs (archegonia and antheridia) of a moss and images of various types of capsules.

Royal Horticultural Society
A comprehensive website from the Britain's Royal Horticultural Society, which provides gardening advise and access to many gardening related topics. One of the most useful portions of the website for Canadians is Plant of the Month, which features descriptions and gardening information on many cultivars available in Canadian nurseries.

Skye Flora
A wonderful website on the flora of the Isle of Skye from Carl Farmer. Beautiful photographs, including many European species that are now weedy in North America. Also check out Carl's Nature Notes from Skye; you'll definitely want to visit Skye.

Wildflowers of the British Isles
Another excellent collection of images from the British Isles, this one compiled by Dr. P.J. Llewellyn, and a companion to his Wildflowers of Australia and Tasmania and Wildflowers of Europe websites. Access the A-Z Thumbnail Index for a shortcut to the species pages, which provide interesting descriptive information. Abbreviations at the top of each page note the species' relative abundance (very common to extremely rare) and whether it is introduced or native. These abbreviations are explained on the Symbols page.

Europe (general)

Flora Europaea
A searchable database of plant species found in Europe, from the Royal Botanical Garden in Edinburgh. Note that the accepted names in this website do not always agree with those in North American databases.

Flora of Europe - a photographic herbarium
A very easy-to-navigate site with descriptions and image of European wildflowers. Click on the thumbnails for full-size images.

The Plant Kaleidoscope
A database of "rare and unusual" cultivated plant species in Europe, by Rainer Oberle, but very useful for Canadian gardeners.

Wild Flowers of Europe

A beautiful collection of excellent wildflower images from southern Europe, compiled by Dr. P.J. Llewellyn and a companion to his Wildflowers of the British Isles and Wildflowers of Australia and Tasmania websites. Access the A-Z Thumbnail Index of European Plants to view the species pages.


Fungi in Finland and Sweden
An easy to navigate website by Raija Tuomainen, featuring images of fungi from Finland and Sweden, which can be accessed through alphabetical lists, thumbnail images, photographer, or edibility.

Lepidoptera and some other life forms (including plants!)
A wonderfully useful website from Markku Savela on insects, mainly Lepidoptera (butterflies), but also including information on plants, specifically which insect used each plant species for food. Information provided includes English and Finnish common names, synonymy, list of herbivores for each species, and numerous original images.


Belle Fleurs de France
A website of the beautiful flowers of the Pyrennes, by Erick.Dronnet, accessible through alphabetical lists of the plants by scientific names or French common names. Descriptions and classification are provided below the flowers images.

Fleurs de Montagne - Vanoise
This website, from Martine Heyde, of the Université Claude Bernard-Lyon, contains images and short descriptions of wildflowers found in the Parc national de la Vanoise. These images are organized according to flower colour, French common name, or scientific name.

Flore Virtuelle d'Orsay
A website on the flora of the campus d'Orsay-Bures, by Solange Blaise, Christian Bock, Jean- Paul Briane, and Jean Guittet. Check out the links on the homepage to explore various aspects of this website. To reach a list of species for each family, click on Consultation, then Familles. Each species page has clear, scanned images of live specimens and descriptions in French.

To discover the rich floral diversity of the French Alps, spend some time exploring this beautifully illustrated website by Franck Le Driant, with descriptions (in French), great images, and synonymy for the wildflowers of the Alps. Links along the left margin of the website bring you to images of lichens, bryophytes, animals, and various regions of the Alps. Access the species through this Family List. Each description includes several thumbnail images that enlarge when clicked.

GardenBreizh.org - Jardins et plantes exotiques pour tout climat
An extensive website from France that contains thousands of images of cultivated plants, as well as articles on various plant groups or genera and links to botanical gardens worldwide. Click on this link, Les fiches de plantes exotiques, to access the descriptive pages for each species, including a list of cultivars. A great site for Canadian gardeners to brush up on their French.

Herbier photo 66 - Pyrénées Orientales
A beautiful website by Josette Argaud that features images of wildflower from the western Pyrenees in France. Click on Recherches to access the species webpages, each of which includes a brief description in French, with field and/or scanned images of each species.

Instants de Saisons
A website of plant images from France, organized according to the month in which the photographs were taken. Great pictures! New photos are added each month. To access past flower images, click on this Index Plantes.

Pixiflore: Balades dans le monde des plantes sauvages
A fascinating website, and one of my favourites, showcasing plants from several regions of France, accessible from an interactive map on the homepage. Each region includes a map with an animated walking tour showing the location of various plant species. Clicking on a plant name from the maps will initiate a short slide show with text detailing the identifying features of that plant.

Plantes Comestibles
A well-constructed website on the edible plants of France, with information on the uses and toxicity of each species in addition to several images of each species.

Plantes Vasculaires de St Pierre et Miquelon
An illustrated atlas of vascular plants found on the islands of St Pierre et Miquelon, compiled by Daniel Abraham and Roger Etcheberry. The islands are located off the southern coast of Newfoundland. This website is also an excellent source of French common names for Canadian plants.

Nature SPM - Plantes Vasculaires de St Pierre et Miquelon
Projet d'inventaire des richesses faunistiques et floristiques des les St Pierre et Miquelon par Daniel Abraham and Roger Etcheberry. A website on the diversity of flowers, lower plants, mushrooms, and animals of St. Pierre et Miquelon. The Islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon are located off the south coast of Newfoundland.

Quelques Bryophytes des Pyrénées Orientales (Some Bryophytes of the Western Pyrenees)
An extremely useful website for moss and liverwort enthusiasts compiled by Josette Argaud; part of her larger website, Herbier Virtuel des Pyrénées Orientales. Click on the Bryophytes link in the left-hand column, then choose Diaporama des scans for thumbnails of the featured moss species. The name of each species is revealed when mousing over the thumbnails.


Fotografien von Wildpflanzen - Bilder von Wildblumen
A website of great images of wildflowers and garden plant from Germany by Robert Flogaus- Faust. Images are organized according to family name.

Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages
A great website in English and German, by Gernot Katzer, with information and excellent photos on every spice you can imagine. Common names are provided in many languages. A must-know site for ethnobotany students.

Moose (Moss)
A partially trilingual website (German, English, and French) from Michael Becker on mosses and leafy liverworts of Germany. Once in the English version, the list of species includes 23 descriptions written in English (in bold text) and 46 descriptions in German, designated by the abbreviation (de) after the name. This link brings you to the English Index of species. Regardless of your language skills, the images are useful for species that are common to Germany and Ontario.


Flora of Iceland
This website, by Dick Vuijk, is part of the larger Natural History of Iceland site, with sections on birds, mammals, and panoramic Iceland landscapes. Great interactive photos and descriptions of the plants. Scroll down the page to access lists of other plant groups.


Burrenbeo - The Burren Connect Project
An attractive website on the world famous Burren of Ireland, with 70 percent of Ireland's native flora represented there. Access images of wildflowers in this Floral Gallery.

Flora of Northern Ireland
A website on the Irish flora by the Environment and Heritage Service and the Museums and Galleries of Northern Ireland. Click on the Full Species List link in the left column of the homepage for access to all the plants included in this website. Clickable thumbnail images and digital maps showing plant distributions within 10 x 10 km grids, add to the site.

Irish Wildflowers
A beautifully designed and easy-to-navigate website of excellent wildflower images by Jenny Seawright. Each thumbnail species link brings you to a webpage with several larger images, simple descriptions and common English and Gaelic names.


Maples and Japanese Culture
An excellent website dedicated to sharing information on maples of the world, by Hajime Hayashida, which provides scientific and Japanese common names, foliage autumn colour, and distribution, as well as a page of images for each species (click on the number at the end of each line). Comparison pages of leaves, flowers, fruit, and twigs for each species are very useful for identification. Access this species list for North American maples, or choose other species from the home page.


Jordan Flora
An English-language website by Ammar Khammash on the flora of various ecosystems and habitats of Jordan. It also features very interesting stories, such as the Tracing the Origin of Tulip.


Plantag - Plant Index
Gardeners will appreciate learning about this interesting website, which is an index of cultivated plants available at nurseries throughout the Netherlands and Belgium. Links to images, from various sources, are provided for most species and can be accessed by botanical name or Dutch, English, German, or French common name.


A beautifully designed website with excellent images of Norwegian plants by Narve Brattenborg. Click on the appropriate flag in upper right corner to view the text in Norwegian or English. Additional links bring you to stunning image galleries of birds, insects, other animals, landscapes, etc.

Lichen Photo Gallery
This gallery of excellent lichen images, the best online resource for lichen images, is from the Lichen Herbarium, Botanical Museum, University of Oslo, Norway. Click on the Photo Gallery button to access the species through the alphabetical browser, or enter a genus or species name.

PanArctic Flora
The PanArctic Flora website includes links to a checklist of circumpolar plants (in progress) and important taxonomic case studies on various arctic species. An extremely useful resource for students of the arctic flora.

South Africa

The African Garden
A terrific website by David Fenwick of Devon, England, on South African species, mainly bulbs, grown as ornamentals in Great Britain.


Arboles Ornamentales
An excellent Spanish website of cultivated plants by José Manuel Sánchez de Lorenzo-Cáceres with keys to the cultivars and a glossary of botanical terms in Spanish. Access the species list for ornamental trees or ornamental plants, including many cycads.

Herbari Virtual del Mediterrani Occidental
A magnificent collection of scanned flowering plants from the Universitat de les Illes Balears. You can select your search criteria in English, Spanish, or Catalan. In English, click on the link Search by Family to access a list of families from which you can choose a genus, then species. Clicking on each image will bring you to a detailed enlargement.


Den virtuella floran
A website on the Scandinavian flora, only in Swedish, but with excellent images and Eric Hultén's distribution maps of circumboreal species. These can be accessed from any species page by clicking on the button labelled "Norra halvklotet." The link above brings you to the Eudicot Families (Tvåhjärtbladiga blomväxter); links to the Monocots (Enhjärtbladiga blomväxter), Gymnosperms (Barrväxter), and Pteridophytes (Kärlkryptogamer) are also provided.

Fungi in Finland and Sweden
An easy to navigate website by Raija Tuomainen, featuring images of fungi from Finland and Sweden, which can be accessed through alphabetical lists, thumbnail images, photographer, or edibility.

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